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Impact Structures

 

Currently ca. 170 impact craters are known on Earth; about one third of those structures are not exposed on the surface and can only be studied by geophysics or drilling. The impact origin of geological structures can only be confirmed by petrographic and geochemical studies; thus, it is of crucial importance to obtain samples of subsurface structures. In addition, also structures that have surface exposures often require drilling and drill cores, to obtain information of the subsurface structure, to provide ground-truth for geophysical studies, and to obtain samples of rock types not exposed at the surface. For many years drilling of impact craters was rarely done for reasons unrelated to their impact origin.

(by Christian Koeberl & Bernd Milkereit, 2005)