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Kola Superdeep Borehole (KSDB) - IGCP 408: „Rocks and Minerals at Great Depths and on the Surface“



Kola Superdeep BoreholeThe Kola Superdeep Borehole (KSDB-3) reached a final depth of 12,261 m. It was drilled since the seventies in the framework of the programme "Investigation of the continental crust by means of deep drilling" of the former USSR.

The main results of the technical experience gained from this record-deep drilling, of the investigation of the cores and the geophysical logging were presented and discussed at several international congresses and conferences, including the 27th International Geological Congress held in Moscow (1984), and have been published in numerous papers and books. Of these, the following are the best known to the international community of geologists:

- Kozlovsky, Ye.A. (Ed.), 1987. The Superdeep Well of the Kola Peninsula. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 558 p.
- Fuchs, K., Kozlovsky, E.A., Krivtsov, A.I. & Zoback, M.D. (Eds.), 1990. Super-Deep Continental Drilling and Deep Geophysical Sounding. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 436 p.

A third monograph - Mitrofanov, F.P. (Ed.), 1991. Archean Complex in the Section of the KSDB-3. Apatity, Kola Science Centre RAS, published in Russian, presents a discussion of the structure and composition of the Archean complex cut by the Kola Super-Deep Well in the interval of 6.84-12.26 km. For the first time a detailed study of the granitoid substance and the isotope composition of noble gases has been carried out. The description and classification of amphibole-bearing rocks, ore mineralization, mafic silicates, and the knowledge on rock mechanical properties have been significantly extended. Geochronological data and information pertaining to the distribution and composition of hydrocarbon gases and bitumes in the section have been systematized.
The main borehole (and several complementary ones) intersected the entire sedimentary-volcanic sequence of the Lower Proterozoic Pechenga Formation (0 - 6,842 m) and a considerable part (6,842 - 12,261 m) of the Archean granitic-metamorphic complex of the basement (gneisses, amphibolites, migmatites and granitoids).



Europe, Russia, northeastern Scandinavian Shield, Kola Peninsula, Murmansk reg, Zapolyarniy



69° 23' N, 30° 36' E (Please scroll down to end of page for more information.)


Project Start and End
  • Begin of drilling 1970
  • End of drilling 1994
  • Begin of IGCP 408: September 1998


Programs and Funding


Principal Investigators
  • David M. Guberman, Scientific and Industrial Centre Kola Superdeep
  • Hans-Joachim Kümpel, Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources
  • Felix P. Mitrofanov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kola Science Centre, Geological Institute


Partners and Contractors



Early Life, IGCP408, KOLA, Natural Resources, Russia


Current State



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